The tribal belt in which HERD Foundation operates is well known for people suffering from sickle-cell disease. The disease is said to be a severe hereditary form of anemia. What happens is that a mutated form of hemoglobin distorts red blood cells into crescent shapes having low oxygen levels. It has been found that it is commonest among those of African descent.
Sickle cell anemia is the most common form of sickle cell disease or SCD. It is a serious disorder in which the body makes sickle-shaped red blood cells. Normal red blood cells are disc-shaped and move easily through blood vessels. They contain an iron-rich protein called hemoglobin that is carries oxygen from lungs to the rest of the body.
In sickle cells abnormal hemoglobin causes cells to develop into crescent shaped sickle cells that are stiff and sticky. They tend to block blood flow in blood vessels of limbs and organs. Blocked blood flow causes pain and organ damage and can raise risk of infection. Unfortunately sickle cell anemia has no widely available cure. But treatments improve anemia and lower complications by alleviating symptoms and complications.
Doctors have learned a great deal more about sickle cell anemia. They know its causes, how it affects the body and how to treat many of its complications. Sickle cell anemia may actually vary from patient to patient. With proper care and treatment people can have improved quality of life and reasonable health. Because of improved treatments and care, people having sickle cell anemia now have longer age expectancies.
Symptoms of the disease include chronic pain or fatigue. Sickle hemoglobin is highly prevalent in Vidarbha region with prevalence rate of 4-40%. It has variable clinical presentation and most patients remain asymptomatic for longer periods. Less numbers of deaths are reported due to this cause because of ignorance of autopsy surgeon in considering this disease as a cause of death despite of its high prevalence.
Sickle hemoglobin is prevalent among tribal populations of central, southern and western India. Its variable frequency ranges from 10-23%. Increased prevalence is reported in non tribal communities of these areas too. Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh show higher prevalence of this disease. Actually Central India region is a focus of sickle cell disorder and the prevalence in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra ranges between 4-40% with average sickle cell gene frequency being 4.3%.